We address the grounding of natural language to concrete spatial constraints, and inference of implicit pragmatics in 3D environments. We apply our approach to the task of text-to-3D scene generation. We present a representation for common sense spatial knowledge and an approach to extract it from 3D scene data. In text-to3D scene generation, a user provides as input natural language text from which we extract explicit constraints on the objects that should appear in the scene. The main innovation of this work is to show how to augment these explicit constraints with learned spatial knowledge to infer missing objects and likely layouts for the objects in the scene. We demonstrate that spatial knowledge is useful for interpreting natural language and show examples of learned knowledge and generated 3D scenes.
We thank the anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Deep Exploration and Filtering of Text (DEFT) Program under Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) contract no. FA8750-13-2-0040. Any opinions, findings, and conclusion or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the DARPA, AFRL, or the US government.
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