Research Post

Efficient Deviation Types and Learning for Hindsight Rationality in Extensive-Form Games


Hindsight rationality is an approach to playing multi-agent, general-sum games that prescribes no-regret learning dynamics and describes jointly rational behavior with mediated equilibria. We explore the space of deviation types in extensive-form games (EFGs) and discover powerful types that are efficient to compute in games with moderate lengths. Specifically, we identify four new types of deviations that subsume previously studied types within a broader class we call partial sequence deviations. Integrating the idea of time selection regret minimization into counterfactual regret minimization (CFR), we introduce the extensive-form regret minimization (EFR) algorithm that is hindsight rational for a general and natural class of deviations in EFGs. We provide instantiations and regret bounds for EFR that correspond to each partial sequence deviation type. In addition, we present a thorough empirical analysis of EFR's performance with different deviation types in common benchmark games. As theory suggests, instantiating EFR with stronger deviations leads to behavior that tends to outperform that of weaker deviations.

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