Research Post

Predicting Propositional Satisfiability via End-to-End Learning

Strangely enough, it is possible to use machine learning models to predict the satisfiability status of hard SAT problems with accuracy considerably higher than random guessing. Existing methods have relied on extensive, manual feature engineering and computationally complex features (e.g., based on linear programming relaxations). We show for the first time that even better performance can be achieved by end-to-end learning methods — i.e., models that map directly from raw problem inputs to predictions and take only linear time to evaluate. Our work leverages deep network models which capture a key invariance exhibited by SAT problems: satisfiability status is unaffected by reordering variables and clauses. We showed that end-to-end learning with deep networks can outperform previous work on random 3-SAT problems at the solubility phase transition, where: (1) exactly 50% of problems are satisfiable; and (2) empirical runtimes of known solution methods scale exponentially with problem size (e.g., we achieved 84% prediction accuracy on 600-variable problems, which take hours to solve with state-of-the-art methods). We also showed that deep networks can generalize across problem sizes (e.g., a network trained only on 100-variable problems, which typically take about 10 ms to solve, achieved 81% accuracy on 600-variable problems).

This work leveraged compute resources provided by Compute Canada, CFI, BCKDF, and NVIDIA; it was funded by an NSERC Discovery Grant, a DND/NSERC Discovery Grant Supplement, a CIFAR Canada AI Research Chair (Alberta Machine Intelligence Institute), and DARPA award FA8750- 19-2-0222, CFDA #12.910 (Air Force Research Laboratory).

Latest Research Papers

Connect with the community

Get involved in Alberta's growing AI ecosystem! Speaker, sponsorship, and letter of support requests welcome.

Explore training and advanced education

Curious about study options under one of our researchers? Want more information on training opportunities?

Harness the potential of artificial intelligence

Let us know about your goals and challenges for AI adoption in your business. Our Investments & Partnerships team will be in touch shortly!